Ling Liu's SC13 paper "Large Graph Processing Without the Overhead" featured by HPCwire.
Another list highlighting Open Source Software Releases.
Second GraphLab workshop should be even bigger than the first! GraphLab is a new programming framework for graph-style data analytics.
Flash Correct-and-Refresh: Retention-Aware Error Management for Increased Flash Memory Lifetime
Proceedings of the 30th IEEE International Conference on Computer Design (ICCD'12), September 2012.
Yu Cai1, Gulay Yalcin2, Onur Mutlu1, Erich F. Haratsch3, Adrian Cristal2,
Osman S. Unsal2, Ken Mai1
1Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA
2Barcelona Supercomputing Center, Barcelona, Spain
With the continued scaling of NAND flash and multi-level cell technology, flash-based storage has gained widespread use in systems ranging from mobile platforms to enterprise servers. However, the robustness of NAND flash cells is an increasing concern, especially at nanometer-regime process geometries. NAND flash memory bit error rate increases exponentially with the number of program/erase cycles. Stronger error correcting codes (ECC) can be used to tolerate higher error rates, but these have diminishing returns with increasing P/E cycles and can have prohibitively high power, area, and latency overheads. The goal of this paper is to develop new techniques that can tolerate high bit error rates without requiring prohibitively strong ECC. Our techniques, called Flash Correct-and-Refresh (FCR) exploit the observation that the dominant error source in NAND flash memory is retention errors, caused by flash cells losing charge over time. The key idea is to periodically read, correct, and reprogram (in-place) or remap the stored data before it accumulates more retention errors than can be corrected by simple ECC. Detailed simulations of a solid-state drive (SSD) storage system driven by measured experimental data from error characterization on real flash memory chips show that our techniques provide 46x average lifetime improvement on a variety of workloads at no additional hardware cost. We also find that our techniques achieve lifetime improvements that cannot feasibly be achieved with stronger ECC.
KEYWORDS: NAND Flash, reliability, error correction, multi-level cell (MLC)
FULL PAPER: pdf